For every woman that has attained puberty, bleeding from the vagina is a natural occurrence at specific periods; this bleeding is called menstruation.

Indeed, it is the common sign to people that the reproductive system of such females is likely functioning well. However, it is not all vaginal bleeding that is menstruation; it may also be a sign of other common disorders or a sign of more serious and life threatening issues.

Some common disorders that lead to vaginal bleeding include metrorrhagia, also called inter-menstrual bleeding; this is a situation where the menstruation lasts more than seven days, or spotting occurs between menses. In this case bleeding continues till the time after which it should have stopped.

Another disorder is amenorrhea where there is no menstrual cycle for 90 days or more while there is also polymenorrhea where there is frequent menstrual period because the menstrual cycle is less than 21 day. The normal length of a menstrual cycle is usually between 24 and 38 days.


There are many things that can cause vaginal bleeding. They include use of birth control medications and devices such as the intrauterine device (IUD) or pills, hereditary bleeding disorders caused by normal blood clotting from health issues like deficiency of Vitamin K, low red blood cell count, effect of medications like blood thinners and Von Willebrand Disease among others.

There is, however, more serious issues like responsible for vaginal bleeding; one major factor is   cancers of the female reproductive system; this includes cancers of the cervix, lining of the uterus (endometrium), ovaries or fallopian tubes.

Other serious health factor that causes vaginal bleeding includes ectopic pregnancy; this is when a fertilised egg grows in the fallopian tubes, outside the uterus, endometrial hyperplasia caused by hormonal imbalance marked by too much estrogen and lack of progesterone which can also lead to cancer, hypothyroidism, infection, hormone replacement therapy, placenta detachment, Placental previa, miscarriage, injury or foreign body in the vagina, fibroid, ovulation problems and pre term labour among others.


There is need for medical help when there is change in the regularity of the menstrual cycle, noticeable change in the amount of blood during a menstrual cycle, is bleeding after sexual intercourse, before puberty or after menopause or there is bleeding after beginning a new medication, hormone treatment or second or third trimester of pregnancy.


Usually, treatment of vaginal bleeding starts with medications, then surgery, if need be.

@ Nigerian Tribune

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